1. True Color
An image is called a “true-color” image when it offers a natural color rendering, or when it comes close to it. This means that the colors of an object in an image appear to a human observer the same way as if this observer were to directly view the object: A green tree appears green in the image, a red apple red, a blue sky blue, and so on. Following image represents true color image, as captured from Human Eye and Camera as well.
Normal Image (as seen by camera and human eye, Red is Red, Green is Green, Blue is Blue) is a true color image.
2. False Color
A false color is a color which is not the original as compared to true color, as compared to true color images where (red is red, green is green, blue is blue). False color images are not the images of the same color contrast. these colors are changed for the ease of visibility in images.
We represented following two images in true color and false color, in 2 different contrasts.
See one more example below, in this example an image has rocks on some land portion. But land portion and earth portion are not fully differentiable, but after some false color processing, both are viewed as separate entity.