Current

Whenever there is movement of charge carriers in a substance, there is an electric current. Current is measured in terms of the number of electrons or holes passing a single point in 1 second.

A great many charge carriers go past any given point in 1 second, even if the current is small. In a household electric circuit, a 100-watt light bulb draws a current of about six quintillion (6 followed by 18 zeros) charge carriers per second. Even the smallest bulb carries quadrillions (numbers followed by 15 zeros) of charge carriers every second. It is impractical to speak of a current in terms of charge carriers per second, so it is measured in coulombs per second instead. A coulomb is equal to approximately 6,240,000,000,000,000,000 electrons or holes. A current of 1 coulomb per second is called an ampere, and this is the standard unit of electric current. A 100-watt bulb in your desk lamp draws about 1 ampere of current.

When a current flows through a resistance—and this is always the case because even the best conductors have resistance—heat is generated. Sometimes light and other forms of energy are emitted as well. A light bulb is deliberately designed so that the resistance causes visible light to be generated.

Electric current flows at high speed through any conductor, resistor, or semiconductor. Nevertheless, it is considerably less than the speed of light.