Compounds

Different elements can join together to share electrons. When this happens, the result is a chemical compound. One of the most common compounds is water, the result of two hydrogen atoms joining with an atom of oxygen. There are literally thousands of different chemical compounds that occur in nature.

A compound is different than a simple mixture of elements. If hydrogen and oxygen are mixed, the result is a colorless, odorless gas, just like either element is a gas separately. A spark, however, will cause the molecules to join together; this will liberate energy in the form of light and heat. Under the right conditions, there will be a violent explosion, because the two elements join eagerly. Water is chemically illustrated in following figure :

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Compounds often, but not always, appear greatly different from any of the elements that make them up. At room temperature and pressure, both hydrogen and oxygen are gases. But water under the same conditions is a liquid. If it gets a few tens of degrees colder, water turns solid at standard pressure. If it gets hot enough, water becomes a gas, odorless and colorless, just like hydrogen or oxygen.

Another common example of a compound is rust. This forms when iron joins with oxygen. While iron is a dull gray solid and oxygen is a gas, rust is a maroon-red or brownish powder, completely unlike either of the elements from which it is formed.